Arama They Didn't

5:59 pm - 01/19/2013

Citizens' woeful social consciousness ensures a bleak outlook for Japan

What is behind the miserable social status of women in Japan?

In October last year, the World Economic Forum, a prestigious independent organization based in Geneva, published a report on the gender gap in countries around the world. Japan's overall ranking was 101, the worst outcome for this country in seven years of the survey.

Despite high scores on women's health, longevity and educational level, the overall figure was brought down by Japan's ranking as 102nd in terms of economic participation and opportunity, and 110th with regard to political empowerment.

The ranking for political empowerment is bound to go down next year, too. That's because 54 women were elected to the Lower House in the 2009 general election, whereas in the election last month, only 38 of the 225 female Lower House candidates were elected — filling a paltry 7.9 percent of the total number of that chamber's seats.

Meanwhile, 70 percent of working Japanese women who become pregnant now leave their jobs to have a family. Although some do eventually return to the workforce, it is not easy in this country for them to resume their former positions.

This results in unstable employment, lower pay than before, and, due to the discontinuity, a reduced retirement pension. Seeing as women live longer than men — of the nation's 51,376 centenarians, 87.3 percent are women — they require more care and welfare support as well.A host of experts in and outside the government has now come around to the realization that getting women into positions of responsibility in the workforce is a national priority if economic productivity is to be enhanced. So, what's stopping this from happening? Is it that women are still seen chiefly as carers who are born to provide services to men, children and the elderly?

In 2007, marriage and family consultant Hiromi Ikeuchi published a new book with an old title, "Ryōsai Kenbo." Coined in the early Meiji Era (1868-1912), the term ryōsai kenbo means "a good wife and a wise mother." However, Ikeuchi's take on this is updated from the Meiji ideal of the self-abnegating servant. It includes advice such as "don't wound your husband's pride"; "be a parent who doesn't spoil your children"; and "show gratitude toward your family." She tells women that they don't have to be "perfect at housework and childrearing."

Admirable traits as these may be in either gender, I find the very use of the term ryōsai kenbo rather offensive. For one thing, it excludes women who are neither wives nor mothers ... or mothers without husbands ... or women whose partners are women.

Neither are the results of a Cabinet Office survey on gender equality released in October last year any more encouraging. Indeed, Japanese society seems to be reaching back to an old model of inequality.

More than half of the 3,033 men and women who responded to the survey — 51.6 percent, to be exact — said that wives belong in the home. Of the men surveyed, 55.7 percent said this; of the women, 43.7 percent.

The telling aspects of this survey, which probed people's thoughts and feelings on gender roles, domestic life, issues of sex and violence as depicted in the media and "what you want and expect the government to do about gender equality," deal with the reasons men and women attributed to disparate roles and inequality.

Among the areas in which gender equality was considered to be lowest, neither companies, schools, homes, workplaces — nor legislation — was deemed the worst by respondents.

The second lowest result registered "in the society," with a mere 21.4 percent saying there is equality. Only in politics did people feel there was less gender equality.

In other words, the greatest obstacle to equality between men and women in Japan are the customs of the people themselves — and what they are willing to accept as "the new normal."

To what can we attribute this semi-feudal social barrier? Could it be that Japanese people are locked into a Meiji Era stereotype, with women still valued for the service they give others rather than for their own abilities, talents and contributions to the nation? If this is actually the case, then the enhanced productivity from gender equality that has been seen in other countries — Canada and Norway notable among them — is not going to be achieved in Japan.

But there is something else at work here.

There has been a general disaffection in society away from engaging with the bigger issues facing the nation. Despite two decades of economic stagnation and political ineffectuality, people here have responded to issues with an all-too-characteristic social apathy. Even when they are roused by an issue, as with the demonstrations and petitions against the continuance of nuclear power generation, they become quickly disheartened by the po-faced intransigence of bureaucrats and the intractable self-interest of the corporate establishment.

The result is a throwing up of the hands in surrender and a shrinking back into the private world of small personal happinesses.

The results of the Lower House election last month, returning the Liberal Democratic Party to power in a landslide victory, show that Japanese voters are very good at the electoral recording of negativity — the vote for the LDP was really a vote against the government of the Democratic Party of Japan that failed to live up to its promises. In contrast, when it comes to registering what they want, the electorate becomes meek, nonplussed and fragmented.

It is clear that the greatest obstacle to gender equality in Japan lies in the social consciousness of the people. And with the political establishment, corporate culture and the media firmly in the grip of dominant males, prospects for the economy and for the rejuvenation of Japanese life are likely to remain utterly bleak.

A fascinating working paper by Chad Steinberg and Masato Nakane, both senior economists at the International Monetary Fund, was released in October last year. In that, the authors estimated that bringing female labor participation (FLP) to the average level of the G7 nations (excluding Japan and Italy) would raise gross domestic product (GDP) per capita permanently by 4 percent —and that in the event FLP was raised to the level seen across northern Europe, GDP per capita would increase by a further 4 percent.

Japan's young women are more educated than their counterparts anywhere in the world except New Zealand. And yet, the report points out, "Japan has by far the lowest rate of female managers among advanced countries."

It is all too obvious that what Japan needs — and in a hurry — is a societal consciousness of, and consensus on, a new socio-economic model that closes the gaping gender gap and recognizes the gifts that women can bring to the nation.

It is also obvious that this must come from the grassroots up. The men who rule this country can never be relied upon to relinquish power of their own accord.

Japanese people might be content today with their little happinesses close to home. Someday, however, they may find even those to be unattainable, since, in the words of the IMF study: "Japan's working-age population ... will fall (in 2050) to approximately the size of the workforce at the end of World War II. ... By some estimates, (the economies of) Japan and Indonesia will be the same size by the middle of this century."

Don't count on Indonesians being content with this. As for the Japanese, whether they will be forced to settle for this may depend on how thoroughly they alter attitudes on the role of women in their society.

As of now, it doesn't look promising.

dayse502 20th-Jan-2013 01:43 am (UTC)
Very interesting article, thank you!
It saddens me to see that in a developed and rich country like Japan, there's still stains from that medieval way of thinking. I hope this scenario will meet changes in the near future, as a woman, I really hope so.
crystalluvshun 20th-Jan-2013 07:34 am (UTC)
age_of_green 20th-Jan-2013 02:53 am (UTC)
So socially Japan still has a mid-fifties mindset regarding depressing.
liime_arix 20th-Jan-2013 03:59 am (UTC)
Meanwhile the blasted government is focused on the army rather than the state of equality in the country. I follow some well-known Japanese feminists on Twitter. I wished people did more interviews with them in English / translated their articles because I would like to know their perspectives on various issues in their country.
slowtech 20th-Jan-2013 07:06 am (UTC)
could you maybe rec some of these feminists and/or share their twitter accounts? I'd love to dig further into feminism in Japan (even with my weakass language skillz).
liime_arix 20th-Jan-2013 02:20 pm (UTC)
Women's rights activists / feminists :3
I find it interesting and productive to get the view-point of Japanese women

Here's the Women's Action Movement:
Ueno Chizuko:
Kazuyo Katsumi:
Mizuho Fukushima:
Ninagawa Mika: (though I don't think she's self-proclaimed or overt, but if you read her interviews, she's trying to do it in her own way)
Kikuchi Natsuno:
Kitahara Minori:
slowtech 20th-Jan-2013 09:06 pm (UTC)
thank you so much! I really appreciate it :)
very_pinku 21st-Jan-2013 08:03 am (UTC)
I'm willing to translate some of their stuffs...but I don't know where to start lol.
Is it okay for recommendations?

I'm thinking of starting a blog soon or so about different news articles from Japan and such and discussing about the social aspects...but not sure yet lol. Not clear on what to focus.
liime_arix 24th-Jan-2013 10:50 pm (UTC)
I'll say start with WAM, news sites like Asahi, Nikkan Sports might also have news. I'll try looking around if you want. Are there any other topics that you're interested in?
very_pinku 28th-Jan-2013 01:56 am (UTC)
Sorry for the late reply but yeah, I'll check those websites for info ^^.
I'm generally interested in stuff like gender, income, race, and those types of issues.

I opened up a blogger so I hope to start translating and becoming more active.
liime_arix 4th-Feb-2013 12:08 pm (UTC)
Me too, I mostly check for English sources but I realise many of them don't go beyond the surface (or what concerns them).

Do you have a link to your blogger?
If you want, I found this article that you might be interested in
Since it gives the view of a human rights activist and someone in government.
very_pinku 4th-Feb-2013 07:32 pm (UTC)
Thanks for the reply! Here's my blog:

I only have a intro post but I hope to make it more active in the future.
I really want to get people to know more than the surface aspects of Japanese society.

But this article is so interesting! Thanks for sharing. I'll take into consideration ^^.
clara_maria 20th-Jan-2013 10:19 am (UTC)
I'd like to know more about japanese feminists as well!
umbrellaphone 20th-Jan-2013 04:15 am (UTC)
I find it ironic this and that 'thigh advertising' article are posted on the same day.
helenmaldon 20th-Jan-2013 04:41 am (UTC)
Interesting, thank you for posting!
xanithofdragons 20th-Jan-2013 05:31 am (UTC)
This seems like a pretty well-researched article.

I suspect that the gender gap and dissatisfaction among women with gender roles contributes to the low birthrate as well, so I think a shift in thought about women and gender in Japan could have huge effects economically. >_
nova_usagi 23rd-Jan-2013 07:27 pm (UTC)
The low birthrate probably has more to do with how dating and married couples regard each other and their own roles over the disparity in gendered equality. Sexless couples is quite a problem. Not that a portion of those men and women aren`t having sex with people other than their spouses... The infidelity rate seems very high. :/
baboona 20th-Jan-2013 09:29 am (UTC)
awkward_as_heck 20th-Jan-2013 10:12 am (UTC)
It's depressing that the solution to many of Japan's problems is in front of everyone's eyes. Whilst it would take time to bring results I would imagine that it would be relatively easy to accomplish, given they already have the educated, willing workforce. Sure, the apathy is there but that would be reversible if the government took their heads out of the asses.
clara_maria 20th-Jan-2013 10:18 am (UTC)
bringing this together with growing nationalism - it does not look good Japan~
too many of my female japanese friends HATE working in Japan and left it because of this... I wonder how it will go on in the future
pinkpapyrus 20th-Jan-2013 01:32 pm (UTC)
I think the crux of the problem lies in this:

"The result is a throwing up of the hands in surrender and a shrinking back into the private world of small personal happinesses."

Women are slighted all around the world to varying degrees. For example, I have never once seen a laundry detergent commercial that features a man – it's always a woman. Watch as this woman gets a grass stain out of her son's jeans! See this college girl tackle a washing machine for the first time without her mother's help! Check out these five housewives with Science-y Goggles on observing the latest bleach brand! Apparently advertisers are under the impression that men view washers as secret time machines and have vowed not to use them for the greater good of humanity.

Change seems to occur so very, very glacially slowly in Japan. There are pride parades, but no laws to protect people from getting fired for being seen or photographed participating in them. There are women in charge, but so very few. Some of the women I've seen who do have political positions of power hold just as radically conservative views on women as their radically conservative male peers.

Ultimately, I believe the middle-aged men of this country are destroying Japan's chances of improving. They're so firmly stuck in their patriarchal mindset that most people shrug off their narrow-mindedness as something that can't be changed. Some people choose to rebel by becoming hikikomori and shutting the world away. Others rebel and get no press or publicity, so their message stagnates.

It's incredibly frustrating to talk to another girl in her twenties and hear her say, "I love my job, but I have to quit because I'm getting married."
dearmisterecho 20th-Jan-2013 05:51 pm (UTC)
this, this, this, and a little bit of THIS OVER HERE
nova_usagi 23rd-Jan-2013 07:44 pm (UTC)
If it makes you feel any better, half the time the women who use that excuse actually want to quit their jobs. I know a lot of women who have "goals" of getting hitched in the next year or so, as if the act of getting married is the end game and it will be all sunshine and rainbows from then on.

What`s worse is when women are stuck in a marriage that they want out of, are romantically/sexually ignored by their husbands, but can`t divorce because they`re financially dependent on their husbands and wouldn`t have a roof to live under should they divorce. Unless they have hard proof of abuse or the husband cheating, it`s usually hard for women to get money out of a divorce.
nova_usagi 31st-Jan-2013 09:34 am (UTC)
I don`t know, probably depends on the person. It`s hard to want for something you don`t even knows exists, you know what I mean? Being a trophy wife and then a soccer mom is a popular ideal.

A more recent trend (within the last 20 years) is for women to become pretty much obsessed with their children and more or less shut out their husbands. You know, after a kid or two dad won`t sleep in the same room as mom and the kids until maybe one of the kids is in high school and wants his/her own room to sleep in.

Not even a month ago I was talking to a man in his 30s who had been married over 10 years, has 2 sons (11 and 9) and claimed to have not had sex with his wife for about 8 years. He sleeps in a different bedroom and the mom sleeps with the kids. The wife is all about the kids and the children are all about "Mommy, mommy!"

Housewives cheating is on the rise too.

Have you read that Japan Times article, "Marriage has little to do with romantic love"? It`s not always true, but omia and konkatsu (with the "kon" being same one as in "kekkon" or "marriage") have become more popular. More and more young people are going through matchmaking services and events where people aren`t just looking for a boyfriend/girlfriend, but someone to date for maybe under a year or so and then get married to. And it`s apparently it`s ok for women to say that they will only consider a guy if he`s making such-and-such a year.

I was asked to join a konkatsu event (because they need more ladies to sign up), but the kanji for marriage is used in the event title so I don`t think so...
nova_usagi 7th-Feb-2013 05:40 pm (UTC)
The thing is, it`s not uncommon for the romance/love to be all but gone even before marriage but people marry because they`re afraid of being alone and having to try to find a new person to date and fall in love with.

This being an obsessive mom thing is probably linked to no personal achievement (in my humble opinion)
I think so as well. Living vicariously through their kids.

And then kids become an entity that serves to please their void mothers
Which is interesting, because in one survey something like 1/3 of high school kids polled don`t feel like their parents care about their physical well being and they don`t feel loved by their parents.

Link to a bunch of studies ---> here

The stats from the report "高校生の心と体の健康に関する調査:日本・アメリカ・中国・韓国の比較" are interesting but kind of depressing.
nova_usagi 16th-Feb-2013 03:00 am (UTC)
Yeah, I know. But it seems like couples staying together despite bad chemistry and marrying is one of the reasons why there are so many "sexless" young couples (and people cheat as much as they do). It`s not like most are celibate...just not having sex with the people they`re married to. Which has to be one of the things killing the birth rate.

It`s frustrating to see friends and acquaintances doing that and not say much of anything about it. I believe it`s wrong, they probably also do most of the time, but because it`s not uncommon they go along with it. No matter how much it stinks that`s their choice. And sometimes it ends in divorce or the mistress ends up eventually getting her heart broken or whatever.

Not everyone cheats, but it`s also not uncommon either. :/
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